have different properties. Any clinical effect, just about any clinical effect tends to be more variable because, as you proceed along this scheme of mine, you pick up variability with each step, and so the clinical effects or clinical measures that we usually use ‑‑ and I think you saw some of those described yesterday in one of the talks ‑‑ tend to be quite variable, and they also have different properties in the blood.
Generally with pharmacodynamic or clinical effects, if we remember from our pharmacology textbooks, you usually have an S-shaped dose-response curve. So you have essentially three parts of that curve. You have the part where you're really not giving enough to cause an effect, so you get close to no effect. You have a steep portion in which you can actually see very large changes in your clinical response with very small changes in dose, and I think you saw some of that described in the public comment period. And then at higher doses, you have a plateau where you've gotten the maximum effect. You really can't get anymore. If you're testing for equivalence or testing to products up at the top of the