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# The plots returned are:

## - A plot with data locations. Symbols, theirs sizes

(and colors) sepatates data from diferent quartiles as follows

###   (circles) : 1st quantile

###   (triangles) : 2nd

###   (plus)  : 3rd

###   (crosses)  : 4th

## - A plot with data-values agains coordinate X

## - A plot with data-values agains coordinate Y

#TO PRODUCE A VARIOGRAM CLOUD

cloud1<-variog(coords=coal.m[,2:3],data=coal.m[,4]  ,option='cloud')

cloud2<-variog(coords=coal.m[,2:3],data=coal.m[,4]  ,option='cloud',

estimator.type='modulus')

par(mfrow=c(1,2))

plot(cloud1)

plot(cloud2)

bin1<-variog(coords=coal.m[,2:3],data=coal.m[,4],

bin.cloud=T,uvec=seq(0,10,l=11))

## uvec : n-element vector of values to define the binning;

## the values of uvec defines the center of the bins

bin2<-variog(coords=coal.m[,2:3],data=coal.m[,4],

bin.cloud=T,estimator.type='modulus',uvec=seq(0,10,l=11))

par(mfrow=c(1,3))

plot(bin1)

plot(bin1,bin.cloud=T)

plot(bin2)

#with Davis data:

bin.davis<-variog(coords=davis.m[,1:2],data=davis.m[,3],

bin.cloud=T,uvec=seq(0,4,l=11))

plot(bin.davis)

#############################################################################

##EXERCESE 2: WNLS ESTIMATOR

bin3<-variog(coords=coal.m[,2:3],data=coal.m[,4])

wls<-variofit(bin3, ini.cov.pars=c(.5,3), fix.nugget=F, nugget=0,cov.model="exponential")

summary(wls)

#output of wls

# THE WEIGHTS ARE OBTAINED FROM AN ITERATIVE, NONLINEAR ESTIMATION

# ROUTIME,  using 'nlminb',

# nlminb is based on the Fortran functions dmnfb, dmngb, and

#       dmnhb  (Gay  (1983;  1984),  A  T  & T (1984)) from NETLIB

#       (Dongarra and Grosse (1987)).

#

# ini: initial values of the parameters: partial sill and range

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