three of these indices as positive predictors of homophobia (Finlay & Walther, 2003; Lewis, 2003; Dennis, 2002; Ellis, et. al, 2002; Herek, 2002a; Plugge-Foust & Strickland, 2001; Wilson & Huff, 2001; Herek, 2000b; Petersen & Donnenwerth, 1998; Berkman & Zinberg, 1997; Herek & Capitanio, 1995; Herek & Glunt, 1993; Herek, 1988).
However, in this study, none of the three indices used to gauge religious association were statistically significant correlates with overall homophobia. In fact, the indices were such weak determinants of homophobia, each was removed from the original structural equation model (SEM) in the reconfigured SEM. Although Lewis (2003) was able to positively correlate religious ideology with homophobia, it is possible that there are more inputs to this latent construct than religion, religious ideology, and frequency of church attendance. Variations in religious denomination, religious sect, and other independent variables could also be overall determinants of religious association (Finlay & Walther, 2003; Herek, 2000b; Herek & Glunt, 1993). Extending the survey instrument to include religious dimensions such as religious feeling, frequency of prayer, and importance of religion in participants’ lives could’ve provided a better measure of religious association as all have been positively correlated with homophobia (Lewis, 2003; Herek, 2000b; Berkman & Zinberg, 1997).
Although outside the focus of this study, perhaps an alternative statistical measure which could be utilized is one- way analysis of variance (ANOVA), to assess homophobia