differences between various religions (Christian, Jewish, Muslim, non-religious, and other), religious ideologies (conservative, moderate, and liberal), and frequencies of church attendance (weekly, monthly, every few months, 1-2 times per year, and never). Another possible explanation for the lack of correlation between religious association and homophobia pertains to the differences in the importance of religion to healthcare workers compared to non-healthcare workers. Many nurses incorporate spirituality into the care provided to clients; but spirituality extends beyond religion (Cavendish, et. al, 2004). Nurses perceive spirituality as strength, guidance, connectedness, a belief system, as promoting health, and supporting practice (Cavendish, et. al, 2004). Perhaps a survey instrument examining religion outside of the context of spirituality is insufficient for nurses. In addition, it has been suggested that use of prayer among various religions and denominations is essential to nurses in clinical practice (Wall & Nelson, 2003). Thus, personal religious identity may not be as influential to a nurses’ overall religious association as it is to the general heterosexual population.
Hypothesis 3 supported a positive correlation between belief in the “free choice” model of homosexuality and homophobia. This finding echoes that of the literature which suggests that individuals who believe gay men and lesbians consciously choose to be homosexual are more homophobic than