nursing (Finlay & Walther, 2003; Lewis, 2003; Herek 2002a, Landen & Innala, 2002; Herek 2000b). Therefore, the independent
variable of age itself may have more of a relationship with homophobia than the educational experiences of various age
With a critical ratio value of 5.91,
significant correlate with in the “free choice” model
homophobia in this of homosexuality.
the most study was
As outlined in the literature review of this exposition, many psychologically-driven theories of the 1950s, including Psychoanalysis, held highly-homophobic views of homosexuality. Coupled with this pathologizing of homosexuality comes the belief that gay men and lesbians consciously choose their homosexuality and practice a lifestyle conducive to that choice. A highly debated issue in the sociopolitical arena, the question of homosexuality as a choice is converged with religious belief of homosexuality as a sin, labeling of civil rights for gays and lesbians as “special rights” designed to protect sexually- deviant individuals, and nature versus nurture theories of sexual orientation development (Van Wormer, Wells, & Boes, 2000).
While the contest between nature versus nurture as the etiology of a homosexual orientation continues, it is essential to examine the relevant biological and psychosocial research that is scrutinizing this subject. Recent research has suggested a strong biological component to the development of sexual orientation; differences in postmortem brain morphology between heterosexual and homosexual males, genetic predisposition and