genotyping of heterosexual versus homosexual samples, and early considerable differences in associative gender development have all been supported in the literature as at-least partial causative agents (Comperio-Ciani, A., Corna, F., Capiluppi, C., 2004; Zastrow & Kirst-Ashmon, 1997; Bailey, Pillard, Neale, & Agyei, 1993; Bailey & Pillard, 1991; LeVay, 1991; Bell, Weinberg, & Hammersmith, 1981).
Research supporting an element of socialization in the development of sexual orientation focuses on the scarce data derived from prison samples (Van Wormer, et. al, 2000). This data suggests that some homosexual sexual behaviors first learned in the prison environment perpetuate into life outside of prison; males who received anal sex during incarceration were much more likely to continue this sexual activity once returned to the general population than those males who actually penetrated other males (Van Wormer, et. al, 2000). The current dominant theory of causality in the social science literature is termed interaction theory, which proposes that a homosexual orientation results from both biological and psychosocial input variables (Van Wormer, et. al, 2000).
To overcome the infusion of homophobia in nursing education, topics and lectures regarding sexual orientation development might include information about interaction theory and could also stress the wider scientific belief that homosexuality is at least partly determined through biological factors beyond one’s control. If a nursing student holds strong to the belief that homosexuality is a personal lifestyle