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REGISTERED NURSES’ ATTITUDES TOWARD THE PROTECTION OF GAYS AND - page 28 / 161

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CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of this study was to examine Registered nurses’ homophobia and overall attitudes toward the protection of gays and lesbians in the workplace. The literature review for this study will explore the relevant literature related to the dependent variable of homophobia and independent variables of the hypotheses of this study, including 1) age; 2) gender; 3) race/ethnicity; 4) education; 5) religious association; 6) belief in the “free choice” model of homosexuality; and 7) interpersonal contact with homosexuals as friends and/or family members and how these variables correlated with overall homophobia and discriminatory beliefs of the sample populations.

Additional studies will be explored that empirically researched the use of the ATLG Scale, workplace nondiscrimination policies, gay/lesbian workplace discrimination, and gay civil rights initiatives. Research on homophobia in nursing is limited; thus, many of the studies in this literature review are from a variety of disciplines. The final section of this literature review examines the implications of the theoretical perspectives of John Rawls and Martha Nussbaum to the discrimination of gays and lesbians in the society and the workplace.

Independent Variables

The independent variables of 1) age; 2) gender; 3)

race/ethnicity; 4) education; 5) religious association; 6)

belief in the “free choice” model of homosexuality; and 7)

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