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more likely to agree with a statement describing male

homosexuals as disgusting and were in opposition to loosening

state laws restricting consenting lesbian behavior (Ellis, et.

al, 2002). Some data do not support a statistical relationship

among age and overall homophobia at all (Herek & Capitanio,

1995; Battle & Lemelle, 2002; Ellis, et. al, 2002).

Typically, individuals aged 18-29 have lower ATLG scores

(lower homophobia) compared to those 40-49, and 50-59. However,

statistical significance exists when looking at overall

homophobia of individuals greater than the age of 30 (Hoffmann &

Bakken, 2001) while individuals under the age of 44 hold lower

levels

of

homophobia

(Landen

&

Innala,

2002).

In

conclusion,

while there appears to be a positive correlation between

homophobia and age, the exact measurement of what age or age

group begins to separate from younger ages or age groups in-

relation to homophobia is more elusive to delineate.

Heterosexism belief, a prescription to engrained heterosexual

dominance of society, has also been positively correlated with

age (Berkman & Zinberg, 1997).

Gender

A large number of research studies examining overall

homophobia of heterosexuals also examined the independent

variable of gender. The studies reviewed in this literature

20

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