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REGISTERED NURSES’ ATTITUDES TOWARD THE PROTECTION OF GAYS AND - page 31 / 161

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review indicate that males tend to have higher levels of

homophobia comparatively to females (Finlay & Walther, 2003;

Lewis, 2003; Battle & Lemelle, 2002; Ellis, et. al, 2002; Herek,

2002a, 2002b; Landen & Innala, 2002; Lim, 2002; Scalelli, 2002;

Hoffmann & Bakken, 2001; Olivero & Murataya, 2001; Plugge-Foust

& Strickland, 2001; Herek, 2000a, 2000b; Herek & Capitanio,

1999; LaMar & Kite, 1998; Smith & Gordon, 1998; Berkman &

Zinberg, 1997; Herek & Capitanio, 1995; Herek & Glunt, 1993;

Herek, 1988; Douglas, Kalman, & Kalman, 1985).

Research in which females are disproportionately

represented in the sample tend to underestimate overall

homophobia of the study group (Lewis, 2003). Contrasted with

this is the research where males are overrepresented in the

study sample; in these studies, overall homophobia of the sample

tends to be much greater than those studies in which males are

proportionately represented (Olivero & Murataya, 2001). In

addition, men are much more insensitive to issues concerning GLB

people than women (Walther and Finlay, 2003). ATLG Scale items

“I think male homosexuals are disgusting;” “lesbians are sick;”

“male homosexuality is a perversion;” and “homosexual behavior

is wrong” were significantly more likely to be endorsed by

males; males also disagree significantly more than females to

the statement “male homosexuality is merely a different kind of

lifestyle that should not be condemned” (Ellis, et. al, 2002).

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