from God as a result of living a sinful lifestyle (Lewis, 2003).
African Americans are more likely to support the removal of a
progay book from their public library and ban a gay public
speaker from giving a speech in their community (Lewis, 2003).
Other independent variables related to increased homophobia
among African Americans have also been identified. African
Americans are much more likely to be religious, be less
educated, and be of male gender. These are all endogenous
variables that have been correlated with increased levels of
homophobia, regardless of race (Battle & Lemelle, 2002; Lewis,
The exact relationships between different ethnicities and
different levels of homophobia are difficult to ascertain.
Although research indicates African American as being more
homophobic than Caucasians, they are much more likely to support
laws and regulations that prohibit discrimination against gay
men and lesbians in the workplace (Lewis, 2003). In addition,
not all data supports the finding that African Americans have
more homophobia than Caucasians (Herek & Capitanio, 1995). Some
data suggest that there isn’t a strong racial difference in
degrees of homophobia at all (Finlay & Walther, 2003). Samples
of Asian individuals in China indicate levels of homophobia that
are statistically similar to that of American and western
heterosexuals (Lim, 2002). Also consistent in the literature is