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influential in shaping the attitudes of Caucasians than African

Americans, for example, whereas the belief that homosexuality is

a choice may be a more influential predictor of sexual

prejudice” (p. 20-21).

Education

Social science researchers have also studied the

relationship between education level and homophobia (Lewis,

2003; Battle & Lemelle, 2002; Herek, 2002a; Hoffmann & Bakken,

2001; Herek 2000b; Berkman & Zinberg, 1997; Herek & Capitanio,

1995). Research reviewed indicates a negative correlation

between education and homophobia (Lewis, 2003; Battle & Lemelle,

2002; Herek, 2002a; Hoffmann & Bakken, 2001; Herek 2000b;

Berkman & Zinberg, 1997; Herek & Capitanio, 1995). Thus, the

more education heterosexuals obtain, the less homophobic they

are (Lewis, 2003; Battle & Lemelle, 2002; Ellis, et. al, 2002;

Herek, 2002a; Hoffmann & Bakken, 2001; Herek 2000b; Berkman &

Zinberg, 1997; Herek & Capitanio, 1995). Like ethnicity,

however, the exact role education plays in affecting a

heterosexual’s homophobia is unclear. For example, the year of

study among undergraduate heterosexuals doesn’t bare statistical

significance on homophobia (Ellis, et. al, 2002).

Lower degrees of education have been claimed as an

etiologic source for increased homophobia among the African

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