thought process, as measured by the Differential Loneliness
Scale (DLS), also tends to be higher among individuals who are
Catholic and Protestant, leading to a theoretical correlation
with greater levels of homophobia as measured by the H-Scale in
these traditionally-classified conservative denominations
(Plugge-Foust & Strickland, 2001).
Intensity of religious feeling, frequency of religious
service attendance, frequency of prayer, and importance of
religion in participants’ lives is also highly correlated with
homophobia (Berkman & Zinberg, 1997; Herek, 2000b; Lewis, 2003).
Heterosexuals who rate religion as “very important” are more
homophobic than those who rate religion as “somewhat/ to not at
all important” (Herek, 2002a). Homophobia tends to be greater
among social workers who believe that religion is an extremely
important aspect of their lives (Berkman & Zinberg, 1997).
Heterosexuals who attend religious services weekly or more
often have higher levels of homophobia than those who attended
religious services less frequently (Herek & Capitanio, 1995;
Herek, 2002a). Specific religious beliefs are also associated
with homophobia. Individuals who believe in an active Satan have
higher levels of homophobia and have significantly greater
intolerance towards gay men and lesbians than those who don’t
believe in an active Satan (Pagel, 1995; Wilson & Huff, 2001)