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REGISTERED NURSES’ ATTITUDES TOWARD THE PROTECTION OF GAYS AND - page 40 / 161

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thought process, as measured by the Differential Loneliness

Scale (DLS), also tends to be higher among individuals who are

Catholic and Protestant, leading to a theoretical correlation

with greater levels of homophobia as measured by the H-Scale in

these traditionally-classified conservative denominations

(Plugge-Foust & Strickland, 2001).

Intensity of religious feeling, frequency of religious

service attendance, frequency of prayer, and importance of

religion in participants’ lives is also highly correlated with

homophobia (Berkman & Zinberg, 1997; Herek, 2000b; Lewis, 2003).

Heterosexuals who rate religion as “very important” are more

homophobic than those who rate religion as “somewhat/ to not at

all important” (Herek, 2002a). Homophobia tends to be greater

among social workers who believe that religion is an extremely

important aspect of their lives (Berkman & Zinberg, 1997).

Heterosexuals who attend religious services weekly or more

often have higher levels of homophobia than those who attended

religious services less frequently (Herek & Capitanio, 1995;

Herek, 2002a). Specific religious beliefs are also associated

with homophobia. Individuals who believe in an active Satan have

higher levels of homophobia and have significantly greater

intolerance towards gay men and lesbians than those who don’t

believe in an active Satan (Pagel, 1995; Wilson & Huff, 2001)

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