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REGISTERED NURSES’ ATTITUDES TOWARD THE PROTECTION OF GAYS AND - page 43 / 161

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think homosexuality is uncontrollable (Herek & Capitanio, 1995;

Sakalli, 2002).

Interpersonal Contact with Gays and Lesbians

Interpersonal contact with homosexuals through

acquaintance, friendship, and familial ties also has been

correlated with homophobia (Finlay & Walther, 2003; Lewis, 2003;

Herek, 2002a; Landen & Innala, 2002; Hoffmann & Bakken, 2001;

Plugge-Foust & Strickland, 2001; Herek 2000b; LaMar & Kite,

1998; Berkman & Zinberg, 1997; Herek & Capitanio, 1995; Herek,

1988; Douglas, et. al, 1985). There appears to be a negative

correlation between the amount of exposure heterosexuals have to

homosexuals as acquaintances, friends, and/or family members and

their overall homophobia (Finlay & Walther, 2003; Lewis, 2003;

Herek, 2002a; Landen & Inalla, 2002; Hoffmann & Bakken, 2001;

Plugge-Foust & Strickland, 2001; Herek 2000b; Berkman & Zinberg,

1997; Herek & Capitanio, 1995; Herek & Glunt 1993; Herek, 1988;

Douglas, et. al, 1985). Some studies even indicate this as the

strongest predictor of a heterosexual’s overall homophobia

(Herek & Glunt, 1993). The lack of interpersonal contact with

homosexuals among the African American community is partly due

to lower educational levels, which tends to also be associated

with lower amounts of interaction with gays and lesbians (Lewis,

2003). These compounding variables could explain a proposed

33

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