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In regards to the mutual recognition initiative, the Holy See is a party to four of the UNESCO regional conventions in higher education, namely those for LatinAmerica and the Caribbean (Mexico 1974), for Europe (Lisbon 1997; Paris, 1979), forAfrica (Arusha, 1981) and for Asia and the Pacific (Bangkok, 1983). Additionally, the Holy See is a signatory member of the Bologna Process, and is a member of the ENIC Network.


Sri R. Chakravarty

Deputy Secretary Department of Higher Education Ministry of Human Resource Development New Delhi, India

In India, overall responsibility for education lies with the Union Government, and the states discharge joint responsibilities. Government policy clearly stipulates that the country’s educational delivery be non-commercial or non-profit, and this position has been unambiguously supported by the Supreme Court of India. While the National Policy on Education encourages non-governmental and voluntary efforts (including social activist groups) to strengthen India’s educational provision, subject to proper management, it seeks to prevent the establishment of institutions that commercialize education. The policy envisages that at least 6% of gross domestic product (GDP) be spent on education, and according to current planning, 3% of the expenditure should be on elementary education and 1.5% on secondary education.

The central government is empowered to determine standards for institutions of higher learning or research, and for scientific technical institutions. The University Grants Commission (UGC) was the first major legislative measure initiated by the Government of India (GOI) under the constitutional provision.

TheAll India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) was set up in 1948 as an advisory body to assist the GOI in the planning and development of technical education at the post- secondary level. Education in engineering and technology, architecture, management and pharmacy is within the purview of the AICTE. The higher education regulatory bodies in India include the following: University Grants Commission (UGC); All India Council for Technical Education; Distance Education Council (AICTE) ; Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR); Bar Council of India (BCI); National Council for Teacher Education; Rehabilitation Council of India (NCTERCI); Medical Council of India (MCI); Pharmacy Council of India (PCI); Indian Nursing Council (INC); Dental Council of India (DCI); Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH); Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM); and Council of Architecture (CA).

Under the Indian system, both the central and state governments have responsibility for planned developments in higher education. A number of developments have taken place regarding private initiatives in higher education. Some of these developments

Ninth Session of the Regional Committee


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