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are the establishment of privately-funded universities by various state governments through their own legislation; conferment of “Deemed University” status of autonomy; and entry of foreign higher education providers into the country through different kinds of collaboration.

Cross-border education is a significant development in the present era of globalization. It has been particularly significant for higher education, where many new forms of post-secondary education have emerged over the past two decades. Pursuant to India’s approval of the GeneralAgreement on Trade and Services (GATS) in 1994, the country’s higher education sector has partially opened up, under the condition that higher education institutions charge fees as appropriate and that such fees do not lead to profiteering.

India has a total of 1.8 million foreign students, while approximately 87,987 Indians study abroad. There is also an increasing trend among Indian universities to open up degrees and branch campuses abroad. The Government has created an exclusive scheme called Direct Admission of Students Abroad (DASA), wherein five percent of seats are reserved for foreign nationals/people of Indian origin/non-resident Indians.

Under its Section 22, the University Grants Commission provides a list of approved degrees to ensure that recognition of degrees in the country is well established.Although India has ratified the Convention on Mutual Recognition of Degrees, Studies and Diplomas in Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific, it does not guarantee automatic recognition of qualifications because Indian higher education institutions also follow their own screening mechanisms.


Young-Shik Kim

Secretary General Korean Council for University Education Seoul, Korea

Korea has several types of higher education institutions: university, university of education, industrial university, open university, and two-year colleges. The Korean Council for University Education (KCUE) is an association of 4-year university presidents and is in charge of coordinating higher education. Its major aims are to enhance autonomy and accountability in the management of higher education and to promote quality higher education through institutional cooperation.

Cross–border education is emphasized in Korean universities.As of 2004, 97 universities in Korea have actively participated in academic exchange programmes with 48 countries. The number of foreign students in Korea and of Korean students studying outside the country have steadily increased. Three universities also offer joint-degree programmes with foreign universities.


Ninth Session of the Regional Committee

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