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ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS AND CLEAN WATER: - page 8 / 30

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8 / 30

Optional guidelines

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Planning

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Effluent charge

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User charge

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State subsidies

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Local subsidies

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Policy instruments

DK

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NL

Permit procedure Mandatory guidelines

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Local authorities Regional authorities Special-purpose -agencies Private tenders

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Water quality princ. Emission principle

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be rather similar in all four countries: a permit procedure was instituted for dischargers, certain planning procedures were followed, user fees were imposed on dischargers and substantial competence was delegated to local authorities (see Table 1). From a narrow ‘instrument’ point of view, the programmes looked surprisingly alike, except that Denmark did not give the same level of prominence to economic instruments as did the three other countries.

Table 1.Policy Instruments for Water Pollution Control.

Covenants Appeal procedure

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