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Bat design and ball exit velocity in baseball: Implications for player safety

R.L. Nicholls* , B.C. Elliott & K. Miller

University of Western Australia

A s h l e y , S . ( 1 9 9 1 ) W o o d - c o m p o s i t e b a s e b a l l b a t s t a k e t h e f i e l d . M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g A u g u s t 1 9 9 1 : 4 3 - 4 5 . B a u m , B . ( 1 9 9 8 ) A s t r o s r e l i e v e r B i l l y W a g n e r h i t i n h e a d b y l i n e d r i v e . A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s : h t t p : / / w w w . s p o r t s e r v e r . c o m / n e w s r o o m f e a t / a r c h i v e / 0 7 1 5 9 8 / h o u 7 5 8 1 9 . h t m l

B r o d y , H . ( 1 9 8 6 ) T h e s w e e t s p o t o f a b a s e b a l l b a t . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c s 5 4 ( 7 ) : 6 4 0 - 6 4 3 . B r y a n t , F . O . , B u r k e t t , L . N . , C h e n , S . S . , K r a h e n b u h l , G . S . , L u , P . ( 1 9 7 7 ) D y n a m i c a n d p e r f o r m a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b a s e b a l l b a t s . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y 4 8 ( 3 ) : 5 0 5 - 5 0 9 . C a s s i d y , P . E . , B u r t o n , A . W . ( 1 9 8 9 ) R e s p o n s e t i m e i n b a s e b a l l : i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s a f e t y o f i n f i e l d e r s a n d p i t c h e r s . U n p u b l i s h e d : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , M i n n e a p o l i s , M N . D i c k , R . W . ( 1 9 9 9 ) A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e b a s e b a l l b a t i s s u e r e l a t e d t o i n j u r y f r o m a b a t t e d b a l l . N C A A N e w s 1 2 A p r i l E l l i o t t , B . C . ( 1 9 7 9 ) P e r f o r m a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l u m i n i u m a n d w o o d e n t e e b a l l b a t s . S p o r t s C o a c h 3 ( 4 ) : 3 6 - 3 7 . G r e e n w a l d , R . M . , P e n n a , L . H . , C r i s c o , J . J . ( 2 0 0 1 ) D i f f e r e n c e s i n b a t t e d - b a l l s p e e d w i t h w o o d a n d a l u m i n i u m b a s e b a l l b a t s : a b a t t i n g c a g e s t u d y . A c c e p t e d : J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d B i o m e c h a n i c s , F e b r u a r y 2 0 0 1 . H a y , J . G . ( 1 9 7 3 ) T h e B i o m e c h a n i c s o f S p o r t s T e c h n i q u e s . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , N e w J e r s e y . M e s s i e r , S . P . , O w e n , M . G . ( 1 9 8 4 ) B a t d y n a m i c s o f f e m a l e f a s t p i t c h s o f t b a l l b a t t e r s . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y f o r E x e r c i s e a n d S p o r t 5 5 ( 2 ) : 1 4 1 - 1 4 5 .

N o b l e , L . ( 1 9 9 8 ) I n e r t i a l a n d v i b r a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o f t b a l l a n d b a s e b a l l b a t s : r e s e a r c h a n d d e s i g n i m p l i c a t i o n s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f B i o m e c h a n i c s i n S p o r t s : 1 9 9 8 c o n f e r e n c e p r o c e e d i n g s . h t t p : / / w w w . i s b s 9 8 . u n i - k o n s t a n z . d e / f u l l p a p e r / l n o b l e . p d f N o b l e , L . , E c k , J . ( 1 9 8 5 ) B a t l o a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s . I n : T e r a u d s , J . , B a r h a m , J . N . ( e d s ) B i o m e c h a n i c s i n S p o r t s I I I 5 8 - 7 1 A c a d e m i c P u b l i s h e r s , D e l M a r , C A .

V a n A m e r o n g e n , R . , R o s e n , M . , W i n n i k , G . , H o r w i t z , J . ( 1 9 9 7 ) V e n t r i c u l a r f i b r i l l a t i o n f o l l o w i n g b l u n t c h e s t t r a u m a f r o m a b a s e b a l l . P e d i a t r i c E m e r g e n c y C a r e 1 3 ( 2 ) : 1 0 7 - 1 1 0 . W i l l i a m s , T . S . , U n d e r w o o d , J . ( 1 9 7 1 ) T h e S c i e n c e o f H i t t i n g S i m o n & S c h u s t e r , N e w Y o r k W i n t e r , D . A . ( 1 9 9 0 ) B i o m e c h a n i c s a n d M o t o r C o n t r o l o f H u m a n M o v e m e n t . 2 n d e d i t i o n . W i l e y , N e w Y o r k .

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