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in the microelectronics industry). Among important CVD applications are the deposition of high temperature materials, such as tungsten, tantalum, refractory alloys, oxide ceramics and nitrides, that are not easily fabricated by more conventional means (see also powder metallurgy and sintering processes, 9.6 ). The importance should be underlined of thermochemical modelling of CVD processes and the role of high temperature chemistry in predicting the most important gaseous precursors involved in the process and the phases whose deposition is thermodynamically favoured. Among modern, lower temperature variants of CVD, MetalloOrganic CVD and Plasma CVD should be illustrated (for plasma processes see the following sub-topic 9.2.b). Some specific examples, e.g. deposition of silicon, SiC, and carbon diamond can be illustrated. The chemical transport along a temperature gradient is a process related to CVD. Give a description of high temperature transport reactions, their optimal physico- chemical conditions (thermodynamic and kinetic) and their relevance as preparative tools. Besides CVD, Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) techniques are also of interest as processes for thin film deposition; the main variants of PVD are simple and reactive evaporation, sputtering and ion plating.

Useful bibliography

Books

  • C.

    B. Alcock, “Thermochemical processes: Principles and Models” Elsevier Science & Technology Books (Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann), 2001; chapters 1 and 3.

  • H.

    O. Pierson, “Handbook of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-Principles, technology, and applications”, 2nd edition, Noyes Publications, New York, 1999; for fundamentals see chapters 1 to 3.

  • H.

    O. Pierson “Handbook of carbon, graphite, diamond and fullerenes-Properties, processing and applications”, Noyes Publications, 1993, Chapter 13

  • J.

    Hastie, "High Temperature Vapors. Science and Technology" Academic Press, New York, 1975

  • M.

    Faktor, I. Garrett, “Growth of crystals from the vapour”, Chapman & Hall, London, 1974

  • H.

    Schaefer, "Chemical Transport Reactions", Academic Press, New York/London, 1964, 161 pp

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