The growth of high-temperature materials chemistry (HTMC) into an increasingly important field of scientific and technological research is due to the continuous demand for new materials and the need for systematic knowledge of their physical and chemical behaviour under the conditions required by the new technologies (e.g., space and energy technologies). These materials (e.g., oxide and non-oxide modern multifunctional ceramics, intermetallics), which offer interesting technical applications for such fields as surface coatings, electronic components, and advanced turbines, are prepared through high-temperature processing (e.g., transport reactions, CVD, combustion synthesis, laser ablation and deposition) and must be stable under extreme thermal and chemical conditions. HTMC now encompasses many fields of science and technology. Its advancement has involved a synergic interchange between basic and applied research, with the application of thermodynamics, kinetics, and a variety of physical, chemical, and modelling techniques to investigate processes and behaviour of materials at temperatures as high as 3000 K to 5000 K. More than 50 years of studies have demonstrated that the general behaviour of materials and reactions at high temperatures often differs dramatically from those that we are educated to expect near room temperature. HTMC topics are rarely addressed in chemistry and materials science programs at university. Therefore, it is important to introduce to students of chemistry and materials science the concepts underlying the behaviour of materials and chemical bonding at high temperatures.