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K.A.Spear, “High temperature materials” in: What is Electrochemistry? Electrochemistry and Solid State Science, fourth edition, The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 1997, pp. 24-27 and refs. cited therein K.E. Spear, S. Visco, E.J. Wuchina, E.D. Wachsman, Electrochemical Society Interface (2006), 48-51. “High temperature materials”,

9.6 Elements of powder metallurgy and high temperature sintering processes: examples of metallic systems and simple ceramic oxides and non-oxides

Aim: To provide teachers and students with basic principles of consolidation and sintering processes of metallic and ceramic powders

Topic description and teaching suggestions: Sintering is the process of forming materials and components from powders under the action of thermal energy. Sintering plays an important role in consolidation of high-melting refractory metals and of metal oxide and non-oxide powder compacts. The main requirements for advanced materials such as electronic ceramics, structural ceramics, high toughness composite materials, etc., are high density and a very fine microstructure. The process of sintering occurs at high temperature and is of technical importance since it is used as a method of fabrication. Therefore, a basic knowledge of the physical chemistry of the sintering mechanism (driving force for densification, role of different types of diffusion, role of vaporization-condensation, etc.) is important. Although pressing and sintering can be viewed as physical processes, there are many high- temperature chemico-physical issues in action (consider e.g. reactive sintering in ceramics consolidation); this topic is therefore considered for inclusion in this syllabus, and should be dealt with together with the synthesis of materials (see 9.2). Basic knowledge of defects in solids and diffusion in solids is a prerequisite and it is usually given to students of chemistry, physics and materials science in an


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