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Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (Volume 12, No.2, 2010) - page 4 / 17





4 / 17

scene, will seek that site from which it sells to a given number of buyers, whose purchases are required for the greatest possible profits, can be served at the lowest cost…. In time, the successful attempts of competitors to locate at the profit maximizing site will so shrink the relative demand in order to cut profits, thereby leading, eventually, to the state of locational equilibrium. The birth of industrial location theory is dated back to 1909 when the German economist, Alfred Webber, published his book ‘uber den Standon der industries’.

Webber limited his inquiry to manufacturing, although Isard (1956) has described his last chapter as the first attempt to construct a general theory on the location of all economic activity. Webber made

three assumptions geographical basis situation in which separate points are producer would be choice of location.

to eliminate many of the complexities of the real world.

The first is the

of raw materials (they are found in the locations of consumption points,

some localities only). The second is the market locations comprising a number of

given. having


this wise,



the conditions of perfect competition are implied, and market with no possibility of monopolistic advantages

each from

The third assumption is that there are several fixed labor locations with labor immobile and an unlimited supply, at a given wage rate. Other assumptions and simplification are made as the need arises such as disregarding the institutional factors, like interest rates, insurance, and level of taxation. Uniformity of culture, economic, and political systems are also assumed implicitly. In Webber’s simplified world, three factors influence industrial location. These are the two general regional factors of transport and labor costs and the local factor of agglomerative or delimitative tendencies in which the point of minimum transport costs can be found and the circumstances in which labour or agglomerative advantages operates. In such situation, the most profitable location would then be the point at which production costs are at the minimum level. Such locations are referred to as the least cost locations.

Industrial movement and demise of industries Since the central focus of this work is dedicated to the identification of industries that have grown and collapsed in Kwara State, it is paramount, at this stage, to undertake a review on industrial movement and types of moves in particular.


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