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A m e r i c a n I n d i a n A r t U t a h M u s e u m o f F i n e A r t s w w w . u m f a . u t a h . e d u L e s s o n P l a n s f o r E d u c a t o r s

March 4, 2009

Shirt

Sioux - Northern Teton

By Dr.Ted J. Brasser, 2006

D u r i n g t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , t h i s w a s t h e c l a s s i c t y p e o f I n d i a n s h i r t w o r n o n t h e c e n t r a l P l a i n s . W i t h m i n i m a l t a i l o r i n g , t h e p a t t e r n w a s l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e n a t u r a l s h a p e o f t h e h i d e s . T h e d e c o r a t i v e d e t a i l s o f t h i s s h i r t i d e n t i f y i t a s o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m t h e T e t o n - S i o u x . L o n g a n d w i d e s t r i p s o f q u i l l w o r k , p l a c e d i n s l a n t e d p o s i - t i o n o n f r o n t a n d b a c k , b e c a m e f a s h i o n a b l e i n t h e 1 8 6 0 s , a n d a l s o t h e u s e o f s e e d b e a d s i n d i - c a t e s t h a t p e r i o d . L o n g p e n d a n t s a t t h e b o t - t o m o f t h e s h i r t , o n c e a c o n v e n t i o n a l e x p r e s - s i o n o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e g a m e s p i r i t s , d i s a p - p e a r e d i n t h e 1 8 7 0 s .

P r i o r t o t h e 1 8 5 0 s , s h i r t s o f t h i s t y p e w e r e t h e e x c l u s i v e r e g a l i a o f t h e W i c a s a Y a t a p i k a , t h e f o u r h i g h e s t r a n k i n g T e t o n c h i e f s . T h e s e m e n w e r e e x p e c t e d t o e x e m p l i f y t h e v i r t u e s o f c o m p a s s i o n , g e n e r o s i t y , c o u r a g e a n d w i s d o m . I n t h o s e d a y s t h e t a s s e l s o f h u m a n h a i r r e f e r r e d t o b r a v e d e e d s i n b a t t l e , b u t a s w h o l e , t h e h a i r f r i n g e a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d a l l t h e p e o p l e f o r w h o m t h e s h i r t o w n e r w a s r e s p o n s i b l e . A l t h o u g h r e f e r r e d t o a s s c a l p l o c k s t h e s e t a s s e l s w e r e g i v e n b y f r i e n d s a n d r e l a t i v e s . T h e b l u e a n d y e l l o w p a i n t i n g w e r e s a i d t o s y m b o l i z e S k y a n d R o c k , t w o o f t h e m a j o r s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r s i n t h e S i o u x c o s m o s . H o w e v e r , t h i s c o l o r i n g h a d a d u a l m e a n i n g . W i t h d a r k b l u e a n d b l a c k u s e d i n t e r - c h a n g e a b l y , t h e d a r k u p p e r h a l f o f t h e s h i r t d u p l i c a t e d t h e b l a c k b o d y p a i n t o f w a r r i o r s r e t u r n i n g f r o m a s u c - c e s s f u l r a i d . A f t e r t h e 1 8 5 0 s , t h e s e s h i r t s l o s t m u c h o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . W a r s h i r t s , t h e i r d e c o r a t i o n s t i l l h a v i n g p r e s t i g i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s , i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r o w n e r s a s w a r v e t e r a n s a n d r e s p e c t e d p e o p l e . S h i r t , c a . 1 8 6 0 P l a i n s , S i o u x T a n n e d d e e r s k i n ; n a t u r a l a n d d y e d p o r c u p i n e q u i l l s ; g l a s s s e e d b e a d s ; h u m a n h a i r ; s i n e w ; m i n e r a l p i g m e n t s ( b l u e ) F r o m t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n o f J o h n a n d M a r v a W a r n o c k W C 8 8 0 3 0 1 3

Bands of porcupine quillwork cross the shoulders and run down the sleeves Their application on separate strips . f ff o hide allowed their trans er rom a worn-out shirt to a new one The quillwork decoration on this shirt tells . f us something more o its owner The bear paws pictured on the yellow background almost certainly indicates . f that this man had been blessed in his dreams by a bear spirit Reckless courage in war are and the power to ff f. f cure the wounds o war are were the usual blessings o this spirit. The yellow quillwork re ers to the yellow

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