Carbon Capture and Storage – A Roadmap for Scotland
The Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) study was published on 1 May 2009. The study presents the first high-level screening of CO2 storage sites available to Scotland; evaluates the means by which CO2 can be transported from power plants and other industrial activities to storage sites, and investigates the costs and business constraints.
Without CCS, Scotland is likely to produce between 300 and 700 million tonnes of CO2 from 2010 to 2050 - that is, on average, between 8 and 18 million tonnes per year. In 2006, CO2 output from major industrial sources in NE England amounted to over 50 million tonnes/year.
Geological reservoirs suitable for storage of CO2 are classified according to whether they contain (or have contained) oil, gas, or saline water. From a resource of more than 80 saline aquifers studied, ten have been identified with a total potential CO 2 capacity in the range 4,600 to 46,000 million tonnes - a capability to store more than 200 years of Scotland's CO2 output from its major fixed industrial sources.
Initial costs of assessing potential saline aquifer stores likely to be considerably higher than for stores in existing oil and gas fields. Thus, pilot CO2 capture projects will be essential element of developing any new storage site.
From a resource of more than 200 hydrocarbon fields, 29 have been identified as clearly having potential for CO2 storage. Four gas condensate fields and one gas field offer significant potential for CO2 storage. However, most of the oil fields can only be used as CO2 stores in conjunction with CO2 - EOR technology.
CO2 - EOR may act as a stimulus for CCS especially if developers come to expect that the price of oil will remain over $100 per barrel for the period of their investment. Development of a CCS infrastructure in Scotland could lead to application of CO2 - EOR in certain fields.