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Adult Attachment

has trust and confidence in his or her partner. There is rarely jealousy in a secure relationship. Avoidant participants are reluctant to trust someone and find the intimacy of a close relationship threatening. Anxious/ambivalents are predisposed to be lonely and jealous. They obsess over a partner’s availability and are never happy with the amount of closeness in a relationship.

Collins and Read also took Hazan and Shaver’s questionnaire and adapted it to fit their ideas about attachment. The Revised Adult Attachment Scale is an 18-item scale that measures participants on three dimensions: Close (how comfortable they are with closeness), Depend (how much they can depend on others for support), and Anxiety (fear of being abandoned or lonely). These three constructs allow for a dimensionally analysis of styles, but Collins and Read also developed “clusters” that allow for a categorical approach. The first is Secure, which has high scores on Close and Depend and lower scores on Anxiety. The other clusters include Anxious/ambivalent (high on Anxiety; moderate on Close and Depend) and Avoidant (low scores on all three categories). They also distinguished between an Anxious-secure and an Anxious-avoidant type.

The most complete and widely used measures stemming from the social cognition theories are Bartholomew’s questions and interviews. These measures hinge on the theory that attachment style is based on a person’s expectations of others providing them with the love and support they deserve. This is easily seen in the descriptions of Bartholomew and Horowitz’s (1990) attachment styles described earlier. The styles are distinguished by the positive or negative view of the person’s self and others.

From this basis Bartholomew derived four scales: two questionnaires and two interviews. The two questionnaires use Likert scales to allow the participant to

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