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Significant accounting policies (Cont’d)

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand, balances and deposits with banks and highly liquid investments which have an insignificant risk of changes in value. For the purpose of the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents are presented net of bank overdrafts and pledged deposits.


A provision is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.

Contingent liabilities

Where it is not probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required, or the amount cannot be estimated reliably, the obligation is disclosed as a contingent liability, unless the probability of outflow of economic benefits is remote. Possible obligations, whose existence will only be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more future events are also disclosed as contingent liabilities unless the probability of outflow of economic benefits is remote.

Where the Company enters into financial guarantee contracts to guarantee the indebtedness of other companies within its group, the Company considers these to be insurance arrangements, and accounts for them as such. In this respect, the Company treats the guarantee contract as a contingent liability until such time as it becomes probable that the Company will be required to make a payment under the guarantee.

Loans and borrowings

Loans and borrowings are stated at amortised cost with any difference between cost and redemption value being recognised in the income statement over the period of the loans and borrowings using the effective interest method.


Payables are measured initially and subsequently at cost. Payables are recognised when there is a contractual obligation to deliver cash or another financial asset to another entity.

Tax expense

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax.Tax expense is recognised in the income statement except to the extent that it relates to items recognised directly in equity, in which case it is recognised in equity.

Current tax is the expected tax payable on the taxable income for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.

Deferred tax is recognised using the balance sheet method, providing for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is not recognised for the following temporary differences: the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit (tax loss). Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to the temporary differences when they reverse, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax liability is recognised for all taxable temporary differences.

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