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Urbanization and Industrialization

  • To a degree, urbanization coincided with industrialization

    • Many great cities (London, New York, Chicago) grew up along with the modern factory

      • Factories pulled hundreds of millions of people out of the countryside

  • Makes sense that as the nature of work shifted from agriculture to industry, the locales where people lived would follow the path of work

  • But the relationship is weak

    • Cities first emerged in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Egypt 5-6 thousand years ago

      • Indigenous persons in Central and South America had immense cities

    • Early cities served as centers of religious worship and political administration (eg., Rome)

  • Their development was fueled by international trade in spices, precious metals, and cloth (and people), rather than industrialization

  • Still, industrial cities were different in size and nature

The Industrial City

  • Much of the work on the Industrial City comes from the “Chicago School” (and is referenced in some detail in the Wirth reading)

    • Researchers provided vivid descriptions of urban life based

on in-depth interviews, surveys, and mapping

  • Park, Burgess and McKenzie offered a theory of human ecology to illuminate the processes of urbanization

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