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Marketing Education Review


below and (2) evaluate, compare, and contrast each compo- nent between your articles. Components: contribution, theo- retical statement, concepts and theoretical definitions, propositions including concepts and linkages, hypothesis including operational definitions of concepts, validity, relia- bility, and operational linkages.

gories collectively exhaustive? (e) Is the schema useful? Compare the approach to classification used by Lovelock with Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry.

Appendix D: Paper Two: Assignment on Realism

Appendix C: Realism as a Philosophy of Science: Topics, Readings, Assignments


Introduction: Theory, Positive Versus Normative Theory,


Versus Justification,



Readings: Hunt (1991), Ch 1. (C); Jacoby (1978) (C); Babakus et al. (1991) (I); Cronin and Taylor (1992) (I). Assignment: Compare Babakus et al. with Cronin and Taylor on positive and normative theory, discovery, and justification as covered by Hunt. Compare Babakus et al. with Cronin and Taylor in terms of the following research standards in Jacoby: theories, models, concepts, procedures, and methods.

  • 2.

    Explanation—Readings: The TST Essay (C); Hunt (1991), Ch 2. "The Morphology of Explanation," (emphasis on pp. 49-57); Ch 3. "Explanation: Issues..., (emphasis on pp. 83-88) (C); Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1985) (I); Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1988) (I); Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1994) (I). Assignment: Identify the explanation for why service quality increases as performance minus expectations increases, then answer the following questions concerning that explanation: 1. Does it satisfy the four criteria discussed by Hunt? 2. What type of explanation is it and what implications does that have for testing it? 3. Is the explanation circular? 4. Does it meet the criteria for a causal explanation?

  • 3.

    Scientific Law—Readings: The TST Essay (C); Hunt (1991) Ch 4. "The Morphology ... Laws," Ch 5. "Scientific Laws...," (emphasis on pp. 129^5) (C); Cronin and Taylor (1992) (I). Assignment: Evaluate from Cronin and Taylor as a possible scientific law the statement, "As perceived service perfor- mance increases, service quality increases," using the follow- ing criteria from Hunt: generalized conditionals, empirical content, nomic necessity, systematically integrated, and sub- stantial empirical evidence. Identify a possible bridge law that could be used in Cronin and Taylor to derive the state- ment given above from work on attitudes.

  • 4.

    r/ieory—Readings: Hunt (1991), Ch 6. "...Theory," (C), The TST Essay (C); Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1994) (I). Assignment: (1) Evaluate the following as a possible state- ment in a scientific theory: As performance minus expecta- tions increases, overall service quality increases. Use the fol- lowing criteria: systematically related, law like generaliza- tions, empirically testable. (2) Attempt a partial formalization using statements in the explanation as premises to derive the statement given previously.

  • 5.

    Classification Schemata—Readings: Hunt (1991), Ch 7. "Theory: Issues...," (emphasis on pp. 176-89) (C); Lovelock

    • (1983)

      (I); Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1988) (I). Assignment: Analyze the five dimensions of service quality as a classification schema by answering the following ques- tions: (1) Was the classification based primarily on logical

partitioning or grouping? (2) How well does the schema sat- isfy the following criteria: (a) Does it adequately specify the phenomenon to be classified? (b) Does it adequately specify the properties of services on which the classification is based? (c) Are the categories mutually exclusive? (d) Are the cate-

Use the same two empirical research articles that you select- ed for the first paper in this seminar. In your articles identi- fy and develop the items listed: (1) Explanation, type of explanation, and criteria: (a) expected, (b) pragmatic, (c) intersubjectivity, (d) empirical content; (2) Laws and crite- ria: (a) lawlike generalization, (b) nomic necessity, (c) empirical content, (d) extensive evidence, (e) systematically integrated; (3) Theory—define and (a) use a chain syllogism to show that the statements are systematically related, (b) use bridge laws to tie the theory to the setting, and (c) use lawlike generalizations that are empirically testable.

Appendix E: Major Paper Assignment

Find and use a total of five or six articles on your topic. Include the two articles used for the short papers and one or two additional empirical research articles and one or two conceptual essay articles (if available). Use a review of the articles to develop a theoretical statement, think of a setting in which the statement could be tested, state a proposition or propositions, and present a hypothesis or hypotheses that would follow from the proposition(s). Write a report on your work that contains the following: (1) Your unique contribu- tion to the literature; (2) Theoretical statement with concepts defined and linkages discussed per Paper one; (3) Using the criteria in Paper two, an analysis of your theoretical state- ment as a possible scientific law; (4) An explanation for the relationships in your theoretical statement and an analysis of your explanation in terms of the criteria used in paper two; (5) An evaluation of your work as a possible theory using a chain syllogism as you did in Paper two; (6) Your proposi- tion(s) and bridge laws; (7) Your hypothesis or hypotheses with operational definitions and linkages; and (8) A discus- sion of the issues of validity and reliability of your measures.

Appendix F: Qualitative Research Paradigm: An Alternative to Realism Topics, Readings, Assignments

1. The Concept of a Research Paradigm, Normal Science and Scientific Revolution—Readings: Kuhn (1970) Ch. II-IV, VII, and VII (C); Cronin and Taylor (1992) (I). Assignment: How does a research paradigm influence the work of science? Was Cronin and Taylor influenced by a paradigm? How and why does a paradigm shift? Does Cronin and Taylor illustrate a paradigm shift or the start of a scientific revolution?

2. Qualitative,





Realism—Readings: Hunt (1991), pp. 394-98, 402-10 (C); Hudson and Ozanne (1988) (C); Jacobs and Dopkeen (1990) (C); Prus (1991) (I); Cronin and Taylor (1992) (I). Assignment: Contrast realism as found in Cronin and Taylor with qualitative research in Prus (1991) on the following points: ontological, axioiogical, and epistemological assump- tions; the empirical research process; and criteria for a com-

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