Marketing Education Review
number of items (see Table 1), which are explicated in more detail as we present our framework.
We believe that the integration gap is rooted in a combi- nation of the instructional material available to doctoral stu- dents and the organization of doctoral courses and masters level professional education. Text material and the market- ing literature on the philosophy of science and research methods are relevant to obtaining theoretically linked testable hypotheses, but neither source is complete. Philosophy of science is pertinent but not sufficient to theo- ry-hypothesis linkage for two basic reasons: First, the phi- losophy of science is a very broad topic and procedures that are especially helpful for hypotheses development are included within more general topics (Hunt 1983, 1991; Zaltman, LeMasters, and Heffering 1982; Zaltman, Pinson and Angelmar 1973) and second, a major emphasis in such works (see Anderson 1983; Hunt 1991) is on what philoso- phy of science is most appropriate for marketing and logical criteria for metatheory (theory of theory), rather than linking theory to hypotheses.
Some works in the literature (Bagozzi 1984; Brinberg and McGrath 1985; Hunt 1991) are concerned with the need to integrate theory, topic, and method and are important sources in terms of several considerations toward that end. However, it has been our experience that those and similar
sources are difficult for students to follow because they lack a set of relatively straightforward guidelines. Bagozzi (1984) does stress the need for the integration of theory and method, but he does not cover in much detail how a researcher can move from step to step, as does the theory- setting-test model. Brinberg and McGrath (1985) discuss research as a holistic process, but to simplify their presenta- tion, they discuss the steps of research as separate "units." We address the overlap between steps. The process of devel- oping theories, propositions, and testable hypotheses is quite complex, and as a result the theory-setting-test model is helpful when used as a supplement to, not a substitute for, other treatments of theory and research.
Research methods is a second stream of literature that can contribute to integrating theory and hypotheses. A major limitation of such material is that works on research tech- niques concentrate almost all their attention on testing hypotheses in isolation from the theory that served as a foundation for the hypotheses. An example of a research method topic that is essential to hypotheses development is measurement and scale construction. Churchill (1979) makes the major point that the operational measure must be consistent with the theoretical construct that it is designed to measure.
TST Model: Theory-Setting-Testable
Step 1. Theory
Substeps Identify theoretical statement
Examples/Detail As extrinsic job satisfaction (X) decreases, job seeking (Y) increases
Extrinsic satisfaction includes the following characteristics (domain) and excludes the following characteristics (distinction)
Specify the linkage between concepts, how the concepts are related
Negative Linkage: As satisfaction decreases, job seeking increases
State the theoretical linkage or explanation Test the explanatory process using partial formalization
Tell why decreasing extrinsic job satisfaction results in job seeking To check that the set of explanatory statements are logically consistent
Substeps The setting: Industrial sales
Step 2. Setting and Proposition Examples/Details
As the extrinsic job satisfaction of industrial salespeople decreas- es, the salesperson is more likely to take steps to leam of other sales jobs that offer more material rewards
Ladder of abstraction—domain of the concepts can range from the general to the specific setting
Workers' extrinsic job satisfaction Salesworkers' extrinsic satisfaction Industrial salesworkers extrinsic satisfaction
Substeps Operational definitions—measurements of concepts
Step 3. Testable Hypothesis Examples/Details Extrinsic job satisfaction measure—pay component of INDSALES
Bridge laws—tie the setting specific concepts to the theoretical concepts
The pay component of INDSALES is within the domain of the the- oretical concept
Consistency of operational linkage and statistical test
The operational linkage should be the same for theory, proposition, and hypothesis. The linkages are negative and direct.
Domain should be consistent between theoretical statement and hypothesis
Since intrinsic job satisfaction is a boundary condition, only sales- people who are intrinsically satisfied fall within the domain.