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Nicaragua. Villa Santa is a young community; the first inhabitants arrived in the late

1940s from the southern region of Honduras. Villa Santa was a pioneer community

established in an area that has since absorbed large numbers of migrants. There are

several smaller villages in the vicinity of Villa Santa where members of the cooperative

also live. The 10,000 hectare forest of the cooperative is national forest, even though

many resineros have titles to their plots. The group was legally recognized in 1974 after

the community organized to prevent a logging company from clear-cutting the mature

pine forests around the community in 1973. The cooperative has about 250 members

now, most of whom tap resin. The cooperative and resin tapping have been integral in

the development of the community. The cooperative contributed to improving the road

into the community, building the water system, building the community center, and

building the elementary and high schools in the community.

The cooperative has expanded into other activities during its existence. Among

these are the operation of a general store in the community, firewood collection, logging,

and sawmill operation. Like the Guadalupe Cooperative, the forest of Villa Santa was

damaged by the pine bark beetle breakouts that began in 2000. The losses due to the

beetle were significantly higher for Villa Santa than for Cooperativa Guadalupe.

Cooperativa Agroforestal San José de Protección Limitada, Cooperativa

Agroforestal Quebrada Honda, and Grupo Agroforestal Chaguite Grande

The cooperatives in San José de Protección, Quebrada Honda, and Chaguite

Grande are all located in the Municipality of Villa de San Antonio in the Department of

Comayagua. The three villages are situated approximately 90 km north of the capital city


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