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they staked their claim to the forest. In one example, resineros repeatedly reported illegal

firewood cutting in their plots until local authorities apprehended and fined the violators.

The forests belonging to the Cooperatives in Protección, Quebrada Honda, and

Chaguite Grande are lower quality, especially in age and diameter, than the forest of Villa

Santa due to lower rainfall and shallower, poorer soils. The smaller diameters of the trees

on this site may also be a result of the greater human presence in the area for more than a

century. Although the forests in these communities were not logged extensively, there

was small-scale harvesting going on, if only by the community members for building

materials. The forests have remained intact until recently because of the communities’

ancestral ownership of the forest. Not only do the communities hold the titles to the

forest, but they have defended it against attempts to exploit the forest or appropriate the

land. Informants in Protección told about staging protests in front of the municipality

when the mayor was attempting to sell a logging contract in their forest to an outside

company. The forests of Chaguite Grande and Quebrada Honda hold lower volumes of

timber than Protección due to over-harvesting that has occurred since 1998.

The Cooperativa Guadalupe manages the most disturbed and lowest-quality forest

among the five cooperatives. The climate and soils of the Guadalupe forest are almost

identical to the forests of Protección, Quebrada Honda, and Chaguite Grande, but almost

all of Cooperativa Guadalupe’s forests were heavily logged in the 1950s and 1960s.

AFOCO foresters estimated most stands in the Guadalupe forest to be 30 years old or

younger. The only older trees are the few remnant trees left over from the past logging.

These remnants all contain some large defect such as forking, low height, curves, crooks,

or very old wind or lightning damage. When the cooperative began tapping resin in the


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