became established before the arrival of the land titling program, or the entire area may
have been deforested.
Figure 4. Deforested area adjacent to Villa Santa Cooperative forest.
Oddly enough, the titling program did benefit the cooperative in some ways.
Property rights in the community evolved to exist at two levels: the individual rights of
resineros and other community members and the collective rights of the cooperative.
Within the community, resin plots are recognized as private property, even though there
was no legal basis for this when the cooperative began working. Plots are bought and
sold within the cooperative. The size of plots varies, and plots are commonly inherited
from family members. In 1992, the land titling program worked extensively in the Villa
Santa area titling agricultural and forest plots. For resin plots, the resineros received
usufruct titles. The titles formalized their claims to the forest land. Community members
were granted full ownership rights to agricultural plots. On the collective front, the