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became established before the arrival of the land titling program, or the entire area may

have been deforested.

Figure 4. Deforested area adjacent to Villa Santa Cooperative forest.

Oddly enough, the titling program did benefit the cooperative in some ways.

Property rights in the community evolved to exist at two levels: the individual rights of

resineros and other community members and the collective rights of the cooperative.

Within the community, resin plots are recognized as private property, even though there

was no legal basis for this when the cooperative began working. Plots are bought and

sold within the cooperative. The size of plots varies, and plots are commonly inherited

from family members. In 1992, the land titling program worked extensively in the Villa

Santa area titling agricultural and forest plots. For resin plots, the resineros received

usufruct titles. The titles formalized their claims to the forest land. Community members

were granted full ownership rights to agricultural plots. On the collective front, the

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