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communities were not initially involved with the project. The project developed

management plans and promoted independent small businesses within the communities to

harvest the forest according to the management plan. The only part of the plan that

included the cooperatives was resin tapping. Many of the logging group members were

members of the cooperatives who left resin tapping to work with the logging groups. The

groups only operated for two years until COHDEFOR revoked their permission to

harvest due to violations of their contracts and the management plans.

MAFOR offered to renew harvesting, but to work with the cooperatives this time.

Both the cooperative members and the community as a whole in Chaguite Grande

opposed the proposal to continue logging. The cooperative declined MAFOR’s offer,

and now most of the cooperative members have returned to tapping resin. One informant

said of the experience, “Bad things happened, and now some people are ashamed. That’s

why we are tapping resin again.”

The Quebrada Honda Cooperative accepted the offer to continue logging. Some

community members objected to renewed logging because many of the cooperative

members were involved in the logging groups. Because of this, many believed that the

cooperative would commit the same violations the logging groups had. One resident of

Quebrada Honda said, “The same pícaros (sinners) who worked in the logging groups are

all in the cooperative. They are going to do the same thing again.”

The cooperative was given permission to log again, but only under the

supervision of a special committee called the Fondo de Manejo Forestal (Forest

Management Fund). The Fondo was composed of community members, many of whom

were not members of the cooperative. Their job was to monitor the cooperative and

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