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MAFOR’s presence in Quebrada Honda and Chaguite Grande were generally negative.

The conflicts within the communities were the most damaging aspect. The future of

these two cooperatives is more uncertain because of their experience with the project.

AFOCO’s results are more ambiguous. The cooperative has much greater capacity since

working with the project, but they were left vulnerable to the bank and

AFE/COHDEFOR. New conflicts within the cooperative also arose because of the

diversification of their activities. Only time will tell if they will be better or worse off

because of the assistance of AFOCO.

Pine Bark Beetle

Beginning in 2000, Honduras experienced an outbreak of southern pine bark

beetle (Dendroctonus frontinalis) that first entered the country from the southeast border

with Nicaragua near the Municipality of Trojes, El Paraiso. The first outbreak of gorgojo

(the Honduran name for the beetle) occurred in the 1960s and killed over half the pine

forests in the country. Most damage from the first outbreak occurred in the Departments

of Olancho and Yoro, but the Department of El Paraiso has been hit hardest this time.

Both Villa Santa and Guadalupe sustained heavy losses from the gorgojo. Villa Santa

lost over 80% of its forest area, and Cooperativa Guadalupe lost approximately 40%.

Both cooperatives tried to control the spread of the gorgojo by cutting containment belts

around the infestations, but the infestations were too numerous to control all of them and

many jumped the containment belts cut by the cooperatives. The difficulty in containing

the outbreaks on cooperative forests was exacerbated by surrounding forests where no

sustained effort was made at containment. AFE/COHDEFOR made an effort to assist the


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