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The best model for resin/timber integration encountered in the study was

Protección. The implementation of the 1995 management plan was a success because it

did not harm stands used by the resineros. The integration succeeded because the entire

cooperative was involved in the decision to start logging. People are less likely to

complain if they have the opportunity to voice their opinion and if they understand what

is happening. That was the reality in Protección. Unfortunately, the new (2002)

management plan did not follow the same system used in the previous plan. The new

system was a mandate from AFE/COHDEFOR, and it specified the harvest of many trees

useful as resin producers. The agency did not allow deviation from the approved

silivicultural method. This example of inflexibility in working with cooperatives

contributes to negative perceptions of the agency. Said one resinero, “They change

things for the loggers, but they don’t think the poor people are worth considering.”

Regardless of what AFE/COHDEFOR does, the cooperative is likely to overcome the

challenges produced by the new plan.

Villa Santa shows other positive aspects of integration. Prior to the gorgojo

outbreaks, the cooperative had a rational method of integrating resin tapping with

logging. When the cooperative planned to harvest in someone’s resin plot, the resinero

was paid 40 Lp. per cubic meter of wood harvested from the plot. This monetary

compensation for potential losses to the resinero appeals to a sense of fairness among

most the resineros. Most campesinos are not used to being treated fairly, but they

respond in a positive manner when it happens. Instead of saying that earnings from

logging are distributed among all the cooperative members, the benefits go to those who

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