MCRP 3-02E Terrorism
The Individual's Guide for Understanding and Surviving
1 attaché Claude Fly, held by the Tupamaros for 208 days in 1970, have also avoided identifying 2 with the abductor or his cause. During his captivity, Fly wrote a 50-page "Christian Checklist" in 3 which he analyzed the New Testament. Like Geoffrey Jackson, he created his own world and 4 insulated himself against the surrounding hostile pressure.
5 In the case of Fly, Jackson, and other hostages, the terrorist organization had to remove the 6 guards who were falling under their influence. However, most victims of terrorist or criminal 7 abductors are not individuals of the stature of Fly or Jackson and do not retain an aura of 8 aloofness during their captivity.
9 Who will be a victim of the Stockholm syndrome? No type of personality or person is more 10 susceptible than others, although some think women are more so than men. This is not 11 necessarily true. Women may be more compassionate but not more susceptible.
12 Origin of Syndrome
13 On August 23, 1973, the quiet early morning routine of the Credit Bank in Stockholm, Sweden, 14 was destroyed by the chatter of a submachine gun. As clouds of plaster dust and a rain of broken 15 glass settled around the 60 stunned occupants, a heavily armed lone gunman called out in English 16 "The party has just begun." The party was to continue for 131 hours, permanently affecting the 17 lives of four young hostages and giving birth to the name of a psychological phenomenon, the 18 Stockholm syndrome.
19 Four employees were held hostage until 9:00 p.m., August 28, 1973. They were three women 20 ranging in ages from 21 to 31-years old and one man, 25 years old. They were held by Jan-Erik 21 Olsson, a 32-year old thief, burglar, and prison escapee. Their jail was an 11 foot-by-47 inch 22 carpeted bank vault which they came to share with another criminal and former cell mate of 23 Olsson's-Clark Olofsson, aged 26. Olofsson joined the group after Olsson demanded his release 24 from prison. This particular hostage situation gained long-lasting notoriety primarily because the 25 electronic media exploited the fears of the victims, as well as the sequence of events. Contrary to 26 what had been expected, it was found that victims feared the police more than they feared the 27 robbers. In a phone call to Premier Olof Palme, one of the hostages expressed these feelings of 28 the group when she said, "The robbers are protecting us from the police." After they were 29 released other hostages puzzled over this feeling. "Why don't we hate the robbers?" they asked. 30 For weeks after the incident and while under the care of psychiatrists, some of the hostages 31 experienced the paradox that they suffered nightmares over the possible escape of the jailed 32 abductors and yet felt no hatred for them. In fact, they felt that Olsson and Olofsson had given 33 them their lives back and that they were emotionally indebted to them for this generosity.
34 The Id, the Ego, and the Superego
35 Many years ago, Dr. Sigmund Freud divided the mind into three parts; the id, the ego, and the 36 superego. The id is man's expression of instinctual drive without regard to reality or morality. It 37 contains the drive for preservation and destruction as well as the appetite for pleasure. The 38 superego dictates how the demands of the id are to be satisfied. It is, in effect, the conscience and