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MCRP 3-02E Terrorism

The Individual's Guide for Understanding and Surviving

1 and business leadership. Belligerent nationalism plays an important role in fascism, where 2 foreigners and minorities are scorned.

3 Nationalism alone is a strong, motivating ideology. People, mostly of the same ethnic 4 background, bind together by the nationalistic urge to establish or regain a homeland. The 5 Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) in Spain is driven by nationalism. The Basque people share a 6 common ethnic background, motivated by a strong nationalistic urge to establish a homeland in 7 the Pyrenees mountains.

8 Religion has driven many violent acts through the recorded history of mankind. Religion 9 motivated the Moslem Brotherhood, a fundamentalist Sunna group that murdered Anwar Sadat; 10 Hizbollah or Party of God, a radical Shiite group that followed the Ayatollah Khomeini; and the 11 Ulster Defense League, a Protestant group based in Northern Ireland.

12 Special interests include radical fringes of many legitimate causes. Many people use terrorism to 13 support anti-abortion views, animal rights fanatics, and radical environmentalists.

14 Long-Range Goals

15 What do terrorists hope to achieve? Long-range goals fit into at least one of three broad 16 categories: revolutionary, sub-revolutionary, and establishment.

17 Revolutionary

18 The terrorist's goal is revolutionary when his intent is to help bring about the complete overthrow 19 of an incumbent government. The threat may come from within the country, such as the Red 20 Brigade in Italy, or from the outside such as the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine 21 (PFLP) with respect to Israel. Some groups are anarchists. They use violence to achieve world 22 revolution and to eliminate all governments.

23 Subrevolutionary

24 The terrorist's goal is subrevolutionary when it is intended only to influence a government or other 25 group of people to change against its will. The sought-after changes are usually of a political, 26 social, or economic nature. The ETA uses terrorism with the goal of causing the Spanish 27 government to grant the Basque people an autonomous country. Special interest groups such as 28 radical environmentalists want to change government policy on specific issues. Their long-range 29 goals also fit into the subrevolutionary category.

30 Establishment

31 When the use of terrorism is directly controlled or at least tolerated by a particular state 32 government, then the long-range goal is categorized as establishment. This use of terrorism can 33 be directed at either foreign or domestic enemies. Examples of foreign targets would be the "hit 34 squads" sponsored by Libyan dictator Muammar Qudaffi or the suicide bombers of the Islamic

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