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MCRP 3-02E Terrorism

The Individual's Guide for Understanding and Surviving

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custody. They were released as part of a deal in solving the hijacking of a Lufthansa aircraft.

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Satisfy vengeance. The most brutal acts of terrorism are reserved for informants or other traitors. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is very brutal when punishing its members. Vengeance may also be of an international nature; e.g., the Armenians sought revenge against the Turks for slaughtering Armenians during World War I.

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Turn the tide in a guerrilla war. Terrorism is an integral part of insurgency. In rural areas, it is usually used to punish government supporters. In urbanized areas, it can also divert government troops from the countryside where they are needed to fight guerrillas.

10 Terrorist Groups

11 A terrorist group is a politically, religiously, or ideologically oriented group which uses 12 terrorism as it prime mode of operation. (Jt. Pub. 1-02) This definition excludes many groups 13 that use terrorism but not as their prime mode of operation. In this guide, we call any 14 organization that uses terrorism in a systematic way to achieve its goals a terrorist group; e.g., the 15 Faribundo Marti Popular Liberation Front (FPL) of El Salvador. Known for planning kidnappings 16 and killings, they take credit for killing Lieutenant Commander Albert Schaufelberger, III in 1983.

17 Types

18 Remember, few if any groups are composed of individual members who have only one common 19 ideology. The Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia is primarily motivated by 20 nationalism, but also has a strong Marxist/Leninist political ideology. It is important to understand 21 the following commonly used terms, but remember-not all groups restrict their operations to just 22 one country or even to one region.

23 A transnational group operates without regard to national boundaries and is not controlled by 24 any state. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) is a transnational group that 25 has carried out operations in many countries, to include Israel, Lebanon, France, Uganda, and 26 Singapore. The PFLP's leader, George Habash, a Christian medical doctor, once stated, "In 27 today's world, no one is innocent, no one is neutral."

28 An international group also operates across national boundaries, but is controlled by a sovereign 29 state and is therefore restricted to varying degrees in its area of operations by the policy of the 30 controlling state. The Palestinian group As-Sai'ga is also an international terrorist group. It is 31 controlled by the Syrian government which specifies where it will operate.

32 A national group restricts its operation primarily to one country. The Cinchoneros of Honduras 33 train in Nicaragua or Cuba, but conduct all of their operations in Honduras.

34 Government Affiliation. A terrorist group's selection of targets and tactics is also a function of 35 the group's governmental affiliation. In addition to being categorized by its operational


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