ed residential clothes washer(s). Online at www.energystar.gov/ia/business/ bulk_purchasing/bpsavings_calc/ CalculatorConsumerClothesWasher.xls, accessed on July 30, 2010; Maytag. 2009. Performance series front-loading automatic washer use & care guide. Online at www.maytag.com/assets/ product/MHWE950WW_Use%20and%20 Care_EN.pd , accessed on July 20, 2010; Multi-Housing Laundry Association. 2006. Laundry room utility costs. Online at www.mla-online.com/workback.htm, accessed on July 30, 2010.
Kenny et al. 2009.
Chandler, J., D. Creech, E. Metzger, S. Putt Del Pino, A. Tapia, and B. Taube. 2009. Water and watts. WRI Issue Briefs April:12; While the lower demand in the region for water for irrigating crops explains part of this gure (only 13 percent of the region’s withdrawals go to agriculture), several Southeast states (Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina) have the nation’s high- est total withdrawals for power plants. Kenny et al. 2009.
Based on 75 to 80 percent capacity factor, 541 gallons/megawatt-hour. Tellinghuisen, S., D. Berry, B. Miller, T. Hutchins-Cabibi, C. Benjamin, and N. Theerasatiankul. 2008. A sustainable path: Meeting Nevada’s energy and water demands. Boulder, CO: Western Resource Advocates; Nationally, the total amount of freshwater consumed by power plants is equivalent to nearly half the amount consumed by house- holds. Kenny et al. 2009.
Dealing with coal plants’ carbon pol- lution problems can make them even thirstier. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a potential option for address- ing coal-red power plants’ role as the country’s single greatest source of heat-trapping emissions. However, this new technology would increase water consumption considerably; adding CCS to a new or existing coal plant is estimated to increase water consumption 35 to 95 percent or more compared with coal-red power plants without CCS. This assumes wet-cooling technologies in each case. Woods, M.C., P.J. Capicotto, J.L. Haslbeck, N.J. Kuehn, M. Matuszewski, L.L. Pinkerton, M.D. Rutkowski, R.L. Scho, and V. Vaysman. 2007. Cost and performance baseline for fossil energy plants. Volume 1: Bituminous coal and natural gas to electricity. Final report. NETL. See also Tellinghuisen et al. 2008.
See, for example: United States Government Accountability Oce (USGAO). 2009. Energy-water nexus: Improvements to federal water use data would increase understand- ing of trends in power plant water use; Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). 2009. Estimating freshwater needs to meet future ther- moelectric generation requirements. NETL; Feeley, T.J., L.G. Lii, J.T. Murphy, J. Homann, and B.A. Carney. 2005. Department of Energy/Oce of Fossil Energy’s Power Plant Water Manage- ment R&D Program summary. July.
Kenny, J.F., N.L. Barber, S.S. Hutson, K.S. Linsey, J.K. Lovelace, and M.A. Maupin. 2009. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1344; NYC residents use approximately 1 billion gallons per day. New York City Department of Envi- ronmental Protection (NYCDEP). 2009. History of drought and water consump- tion. Online at www.nyc.gov/html/dep/ html/drinking_wate /droughthist.shtml, accessed on July 27, 2010.
Wheeler, B. 2010. 316(b) revisited: Examining the challenges facing nuclear power plants. Online at www. powergenworldwide.com/index/display/ articledisplay/0858006563/articles/ nuclear-power-international/volume-3/ Issue_2/nucleus/316b_Revisited_ Examining_the_challenges_facing_ nuclear_power_plants.html, accessed on July 27, 2010.
Energy required to run a washer on hot/warm is the sum of the energy required to run the machine’s motor (0.25 kilowatt-hour, or kWh) and the energy consumed by a water heater to heat 40 gallons of water from 10°C to 46°C (Maytag)—average of both hot and warm cycles. Using an electric water heater that operates at 90 percent eciency, this would require about 7 kWh. A power plant using 20 gallons of water for each kilowatt-hour produced would require 145 gallons of water to produce 7.25 kWh, while a power plant using 60 gallons per kWh would require 435 gallons of water. Sources include: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2010. Indoor water use in the United States. Online at www.epa.gov/ watersense/pubs/indoor.html, accessed on July 30, 2010; EPA. 2009. Life cycle cost estimate for 1 ENERGY S AR quali-
10 Median summer peak temperature increases. NETL. 2007. NETL coal power plant database. Online at www. netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/hold/ technology.html, accessed on July 27, 2010.
11 DOE. 2006. Energy demands on water resources: Report to Congress on the interdependency of energy and water.
12 NETL 2007.
13 Schwarzen, C. 2000. Georgia power to build cooling tower to rectify sh kill problem. Knight Ridde / ribune Business News, March 3.
14 In California, these environmental impacts have led to a new policy to phase out once-through cooling systems in all coastal power plants. The California State Water Board has established new technology- based standards to implement the federal Clean Water Act on existing coastal plants. California State Water Resources Control Board. 2010. State water resources control board resolution No. 2010-2020. Online at www.swrcb. ca.gov/water_issues/programs/npdes/ cwa316.shtm , accessed on July 22, 2010.
15 Sovacool, B.K. 2009. Running on empty: The electricity-water nexus and the US electric utility sector. Energy Law Journal 30(11).
16 According to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), between July 24 and August 27, 2010, the average power production of all three reactors at Browns Ferry was less than 60 percent of capacity. NRC. 2010. Power reactor status reports for 2010. Online at www. nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/ event-status/reactor-status/2010/index. html, accessed on August 30, 2010.
17 Some concentrating solar technolo- gies, such as dish/engine systems, do not involve water. See: USGAO 2009; DOE 2006; or Dennen, B., D. Larson, C. Lee, J. Lee, and S. Tellinghuisen. 2007. California’s energy-water nexus: water use in electricity generation. University of California, Santa Barbara.
18 Kenny et al. 2009.
19 The 100 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol is the weighted average across the three largest corn-producing regions. Vehicle eciency is adjusted based on energy content of a gallon of ethanol (67 percent that of gaso- line), although in reality, vehicles use blends of ethanol and gasoline. The 20-gallons-per-mile gure is based on
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