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6GEO3 Unit 3 Contested Planet Topic 5: Bridging the Development Gap - page 15 / 24

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East Timor

East Timor (Timor-Leste) was a Portuguese colony which gained independence in 1975, and was invaded by Indonesia in the same year.

Indonesia occupied East Timor until 1999; East Timor regained its independence in 2002.

The Indonesian campaign against East Timorese resistance fighters involved forced resettlement of 1000s of people into camps

The death toll from fighting was high

Portuguese was banned

Around 150,000 Indonesians were settled on East Timor as part of the Transmigration Programme

Most businesses were taken over by Indonesians

East Timor

Indonesia

Colony of

Portugal

Holland

Religion

Catholic

Muslim

Ave Income

$2300

$4000

HDI

0.49

0.73

Indonesia’s occupation created a dual population of poor Timorese and better off Indonesian migrants, reflected in the post-independence differences in HDI and income

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