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6GEO3 Unit 3 Contested Planet Topic 5: Bridging the Development Gap - page 17 / 24

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3. Bridging the gap

How should the development gap be bridged?

This question is important because there are a number of different approaches that might be taken

The choice of approach is influenced by political viewpoint

Neo-liberal / Capitalist

Marxist/ Socialist

Populist

Grassroots

China, Asian Tigers

Cuba, Kerala (India)

Venezuela / Latin America

Community based

Market led development, following the ‘Modernisation Theory’ of WW Rostow

Stressing industry and infrastructure, free trade and attracting foreign direct investment to create jobs and raise incomes.

Breaking free of capitalism and profit.

State ownership and planning so that profits from industry and uses for health and education; usually involves wholesale land reform .

State control and limited involvement in world trade and TNCs

Charismatic ‘man of the people’ leaders create a ‘them and us’ discourse promising social equality and using policies that appeal to the pockets of ordinary people

Critics state populism is directionless and leads to poor economic decision-making

Small-scale, community focussed development often aiming to meet basic needs rather than hugely improve incomes

Often involves local or international NGOs who provide some funding and other support.

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