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6GEO3 Unit 3 Contested Planet Topic 5: Bridging the Development Gap - page 18 / 24

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Strategies  

Development projects are often characterised as either ‘top-down’ or ‘bottom-up’: (see the next slide for examples)

Bottom up

Top Down

Scale

Small; based on one community or area e.g. a valley

Large; often part of national planning aims  

Leadership

Community and NGOs; partnership arrangements

Government and government agencies; construction and engineering TNCs

Funding source

Local people and NGOs; donations or earned income recycled into the community

Government, via multilateral aid (WB / IMF) or bilateral aid; private investment

Aims

Meeting basic needs of food, health, education and water; small improvements in income

Meeting national needs in terms of energy or water supply, or transport; profit

Technology

Intermediate / appropriate

Hi-Tech

Types of project

Food production, water supply, small scale renewable energy

Electricity, transport, industry and infrastructure

Winners

Local people; the environment

Industry, urban dwellers, TNCs

Losers

Usually are none

Environment, rural people

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