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Total Quality Management - TQM

Standards in Action

www.bsieducation.org/standardsinaction

Customer’s expectations concerning a product or service

Customer’s perceptions concerning the product or service

Previous

Experience

Word of mouth communications

Image of product or service

Customer’s own specification of quality

Management’s concept of the product or service

organization’s specification of quality

The actual product or service

Gap 1

Gap 2

Gap 3

Gap 4

A “Gap” model of Quality

Source: Parasuraman, Zeithman and Berry. 1985

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