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Granular Materials: Liquid-like Properties of Sand - page 14 / 14





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a function of this function of viscosity and another function of 1.9 + 0.064 log (v). As of

yet, we have no theoretical footing for the long function. The viscous function, however,

seems to fit nicely with our data and is inspired by the theory of a second-degree phase

transition. I have learned that experimental physics takes a lot of time to accomplish

what we want with some trial and error and some educated guessing. As always, in order

to learn everything that we want to, more time will be needed. Starting with one

experiment has led to another exciting wonder of the fluidized bed of sand. There are

still so many things to be studied about this new topic in the world of physics. I hope to

study and learn more about it in the future.


I would like to give special thanks to both professors Maarten Rutgers and David

Andereck. I would also like to thank Professor William Palmer, Professor Linn Van

Woerkom, and Shirley Royer for allowing me to participate in this year’s REU program.

Thanks also to the NSF for funding this REU program.

1 Nasuno, S. and A. Kudrolli, et al. “Time-resolved Studies of Stick-slip Friction in Sheared Granular Materials.” Physical Review E. Vol. 58: 2161-2171, 1998.

2 Evesque, P. “Shaking Dry Powders and Grains.” Contemporary Physics. Vol. 33:245-261, 1992.

3 Menon, Narayanan and Douglas J. Durian. “Particle Motions in a Gas-Fluidized Bed of Sand.” Physics

Review. Vol. 79: 3407-3410, 1997.

4 Geldart, D. and A. C. Y. Wong. “Fluidization of Powders Showing Degrees of Cohesiveness—I. Bed

Expansion.” Chemical Engineering Science. Vol. 39: 1481-1488, 1984.

5 Kadanoff, Leo P. “Built Upon Sand: Theoretical Ideas Inspired by Granular Flows.” Reviews of Modern

Physics. Vol. 71: 435-444, 1999.


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