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Granular Materials: Liquid-like Properties of Sand - page 4 / 14

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The idea of our experiment is to find out viscosity’s relationship to force by

pulling a ball through the fluidized bed of sand. If you measure a, v, FDrag, you can

calculate . A possible experiment is to drop a ball in a liquid and measure the velocity,

v. When dropping the ball in a fluidized bed of sand, the ball can’t be seen easily. In this

case, in order to find the viscosity in sand, we chose to use a set velocity so we could

measure the force that will in return give us the viscosity.

Experimental

Stepper Motor

Motor Controller

Apparatus

Flexible Shaft

Translations Stage Supporting Frame 80/20

Limit switch

Force Transducer

o

T

Fu

m

e

H

o

o

d

Lock-in Amplifier

Computer with GPIB interface

Optional RS232 Communication

air supply

Fluidized Bed Insulation

Pressure gauge

Thermometer

Flow meter

Valve or low pressure regulator

Heaters

Fig 3a

The apparatus (shown in figure 3a and 3b) used in our experiment consists of a

glass tube with a height of 36in and a diameter of 6in. A glass frit is built into the glass

4

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