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Granular Materials: Liquid-like Properties of Sand - page 9 / 14

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9 / 14

Distance (in)

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

solid

liquid

0

50

100

150

Flow Rate

Fig 6

This graph shows that at different flow rates, the ball was able to sink at different distances.

From a set of data points plotted on a graph with velocity versus force at a

constant flow rate of 120 (shown in figure 7), we can see that the plot of force vs.

velocity is not linear. This means that liquid-like property of sand is not a simple liquid

or Newtonian liquid. Not knowing which theory to apply, we arbitrarily fit a logarithmic

function to the data. This is shown in figure 8. The logarithmic functional form also fits

data taken at other gas flow rates, within some multiplicative factor. This graph also

shows that at the lower gas flow rates, the drag force is larger than at the higher flow

rates.

9

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