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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 16 / 102

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($66,103), and Hispanics ($38,679). In addition, female householders, with no husband

present, had a median income of $33,370, and male householders with no wife present

had estimated incomes of $49, 839 (DeNavas-Walt et al. 2008:7). 2.) Additional figures

from the United States Census Bureau point to dramatic changes in family structure. In

1990, the number of United States households designated as female householder, no

husband present with 1 or more children under 18 was 6,987,624, and for male

householder, no wife present, the figure was 1,618,338 (U.S. Census Bureau 1990). In the

2000 census, just 10 years later, those figures rose significantly, and for family

households with 1 or more children under 18, female householder, no husband present

there were 8,827,729 households–an increase of 26 percent. For male householder, no

wife present, the number had increased by 59 percent to 2,572,370 households (U.S.

Census Bureau 2000). 3.) The proportion of children living in single-parent situations has

been changing over the last 4 decades. Beginning in 1960, the proportion of children

living with a single-divorced parent was 23 percent. That figure increased to 30.2 percent

in 1970 and grew even larger to 42.4 percent in 1980 before decreasing to 38.6 percent in

1990. While the proportion of children living with a single divorced parent appears to

have peaked in the mid 1980s it remains relatively high at 37 percent, and the proportion

of children living with a single, never-married parent has increased steadily. In 1960, that

figure was 4.2 percent, increasing to 6.8 percent in 1970, 14.6 percent in 1980, 30.6

percent in 1990 and reaching 35.8 percent in 1994 (Saluter 1994:xi). 4.) Recent analysis

of the factors affecting academic achievement at both primary and secondary education

levels suggests that SES has a significant effect on educational outcomes which limit the

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