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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 20 / 102

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from an intact family” (p.112). In fact, the effect of SES was between three and six times

larger than the effect of parental involvement. In addition, with the exception of the Asian

category, the race/ethnicity coefficients indicate that, after controlling for all other

independent variables in the model, the relationship between race/ethnicity and academic

achievement is mixed. For example, after controlling for other factors, coefficients for

Asians are higher than for whites on some variables such as math and social studies,

while coefficients for Blacks and Hispanics are lower than coefficients for whites on the

same variables. One particularly interesting coefficient in the original regression indicates

that a negative and statistically significant relationship exists between academic

achievement and the variable that measures the extent to which parents know their

children’s friends and how often the parents help with or check to see their children have

completed their homework. In the original research, Jeynes speculates that “this result

might have emerged because struggling adolescents need their parents to check on these

matters more” (p.112). It is also possible that parents checking up on their children’s

friends and homework represents the only interaction the parent has with their child,

which points to the need for increased overall contact between parent and child. In light

of this finding, one hypothesis specifically addresses that relationship, and considerable

attention will be given to that relationship in this replication.

In addition to this counterintuitive result, there are structural and theoretical

limitations with the original variables utilized to create this variable. Because the variable

combines two four-part ordinal variables with three dichotomous nominal variables,

Jeynes was forced to create an arbitrary break-point in the recoding of the four-part

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