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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 22 / 102

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Chapter 2

A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Parental Involvement

In addition to one variable for family structure, Jeynes’ original study (2005),

includes several variables which are used in various combinations to determine the extent

to which parental involvement includes attendance and participation at school activities,

discussing school activities with their children, and checking-up on their children’s

school related activities. While it is nearly impossible to find studies which include

variables constructed in exactly the same way, there are studies that include similar

variables. Studies that utilize a variable for parents discussing school activities with their

children include: Balli, Wedman, and Demo 1997; Bogenschneider 1997; Mau 1997;

McNeal 2001; and Muller 1998. One measure of parents attending school related events

is included in research conducted by Bogenschneider 1997; Mau 1997; and Muller 1998,

and a variable for parents checking-up on students is included in studies conducted by

Balli et al. 1997; Bogenschneider 1997; and Mau 1997.

McNeal’s (2001) study was partially motivated by the dearth of research on the

possible correlation between parental involvement and adverse student behavior,

including truancy and actually dropping out of school. Findings in McNeal’s study

indicate that parental involvement is “generally a salient factor in explaining behavioral,

but not cognitive outcomes, with greatest support for parent-child discussion and

involvement in parent-teacher organizations” (p.171). Bogenschneider (1997) conducted

research on the relationship between parental involvement and achievement with the

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