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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 23 / 102

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intent to investigate the possibility of transcontextual validity of parental involvement

across variables including parents’ gender or education level, as well as the children’s

gender, ethnic background or family structure. A key finding in Bogenschneider’s study

holds that parental involvement is positively correlated with academic achievement,

“compared with parents who are less involved, parents who are more involved in their

adolescents’ schooling, regardless of the parent’s gender or educational level, have

offspring who do better in school, irrespective of the child’s gender, ethnicity, or family

structure” (1997:729).

Mau (1997) was primarily concerned with illuminating possible differences in the

effect of parental involvement as it relates to three specific groups of students–Asian

immigrants, Asian Americans, and white Americans. Along with similar variables to

those in the Jeynes’ study, Mau also included variables intended to measure the extent to

which controlling behavior on the part of the parents affected academic achievement.

Overall, Mau’s study suggests that a negative relationship exists between parental

involvement and academic achievement for Asian immigrants and Asian American

students. Muller (1998) focused on the potential gender based differentials in the effect of

parental involvement on academic achievement. The results Muller’s analysis indicated

that “The relationship between parental involvement and achievement is similar for girls

and boys and diminishes over the course of high school to the point that parental

involvement has essentially no relationship to the gains in achievement made by seniors”

(1998:336). Regarding the study by Balli et al., the intent of the study was “to determine

if variations in prompting families to be involved with mathematics homework would

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