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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 24 / 102

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influence their level of involvement” (1997:31). The results of the study indicate that

“Higher levels of family involvement were not associated with higher student

achievement in this study; however, the telephone interviews suggested that some

families experienced other benefits from being involved with homework including

companionship and an increased awareness of what their children were learning in

mathematics” (Balli et al.1997:38).

Family Structure

Three studies, (Zimiles and Lee, 1991; Brody and Flor, 1997; and Weitoft, Hjern, and

Rosén, 2004), include evaluations of family structure and suggest that children from

single-parent households may be losing ground in the battle for academic success in a

variety of ways. Zimiles’ study is a secondary analysis of another highly regarded study,

High School and Beyond (HS&B). According to the authors of the 2002 Education

Longitudinal Study report, HS&B was an important study that captured differences

between attitudes early in high school and compared those to attitudes formed later on in

high school (Ingels et al. 2005). Zimiles’ study examines the contrast between single-

parent households and that of intact, two-parent homes as well as remarried parents

(1991). The longitudinal study by Weitoft et al. (2004) examines the effect of single

parenthood and examines the educational attainment of children now 24 to 25 years old

who were living with the same single parent (widowed, non-custodial other parent living,

non-custodial other parent deceased) in both 1985 and 1990, and children who were

living with the same two parents during the same time frame. According to Weitoft et al.,

“Poorer educational performance on the part of the offspring of lone parents can be

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